Laboratory 10: Liliopsida II, Subclasses IX, X, and XI
Arecidae, Zingiberidae, and Liliidae
|Objectives for this lab are to:
Safety concerns for this
lab: Use caution with dissecting tools, wear protective eyewear
if working with specimens preserved in Carosafe, dispose of Carosafe
specimens in proper waste container.
- know the characteristics fo the subclasses Arecidae,
Zingiberidae, and Liliidae
- learn key features of families and genera within the
Arecidae, Zingiberidae, and Liliidae
- be able to identify structures in preserved, fresh, or
mounted material of plants from these subclasses
- identify subclass, family, and genus for selected members
of these subclasses.
Family study exercises are designed to
you with the major characters of some important flowering plant
Follow the guidelines on your instruction sheets. Answer questions and
diagram structures ON THE SHEETS
and save them to study from.
in addition to those requested in the lab instructions, will be useful.
For exams, you will be expected to be able to identify structures
in preserved or fresh floral material. Herbarium specimens will be on
during each laboratory period. You should be able to identify these to
genus, family, and subclass by recognizing the characters we discuss.
a copy of the overhead presented in lab, click here
SUBCLASS IX - ARECIDAE
(Jack-in-the-pulpit) - Arales:
Work in pairs or look at the demo. OBTAIN an
inflorescence and compare with W&K p. 414 and lecture notes.
SPADIX, and highly reduced flowers. Species of this genus are
or dioecious; male flowers are composed of a cluster of nearly sessile
2- to 4-celled anthers opening by terminal slits or pores; female
consist of a 1-celled ovary with a broad stigma and up to 6 ovules.
of this preserved material has staminate flowers and some of it has
flowers. (A few odd ones have both!)
OBSERVE and DRAW both types of flower.
EXAMINE the key to monocot families and note that it would be
difficult to identify this family if you were not aware of this
and characteristic inflorescence.
Members of this family are stemless, leafless, floating aquatics with a
thalloid body and extremely reduced flowers. Reproduction is
usually by budding. Species of Wolffia, at about 1
mm long, are the world's
smallest flowering plants! Examine and SKETCH the demonstration
SUBCLASS X - ZINGIBERIDAE
1. Bromeliaceae - Bromeliales
Examine material on display representing this family. Note epiphytic
habit, scurfy leaves, and colored
flowers, and other characteristics discussed by W&K on pp.
KEY the family in reverse. That is, start with the family and
go through the key until you reach couplet number 1. What characters
the key use to key out the Bromeliaceae?
What is the Bromeliad genus found locally? ______________________ One
grows in balls,
the other in long festoons.
It is hard to believe these plants are in the same family as pineapples!
the samples provided.
3. SUBCLASS XI - LILIIDAE
1. Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae - Liliales:
CONSTRUCT a floral formula for this particular plant:
KEY to family (leaves
KEY this plant to genus (neither A nor B has an onion smell)
Now consider Unknown "B" (click for a similar
EXAMINE the floral material carefully. CONSTRUCT a
formula for your specimen ____________________________
How does this specimen
compare with sample A in regard to ovary
NOTE that your lab key and W&K (p. 419) place both of
these plants in the same family. Previously, these plants were split
into the Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Currently, some authorities
divide the Liliales into many segregate families.
Examine demonstration material of the Agavaceae,
if there is some. What characters distinguish this
DRAW your samples :
2. Orchidaceae -Orchidales
OBTAIN an orchid
flower. NOTE the highly modified floral structure,
derived from fused stamens, style, and stigma. What is the ovary
____________________. Refer to the diagrams on page 426 of W&K and
the poster on the board as you dissect your
What is a pollinium?________________________________
Where have we encountered pollinia
SKETCH the flower and column of the orchid:
OBSERVE the demonstration material. This may include
of Spiranthes (ladies' tresses), Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum,
(rose pogonia) or others. Hundreds of species of orchids are grown for
their flowers. Vanilla planifolia is the source of vanilla
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last updated 25 June 2010