Review: Monocots have one seed leaf,
roots, flower parts in 3's, and parallel leaf venation. None are truly
woody (palms have fibrous stems.) Today we study three
1. Alismataceae--Aquatic herbs, flowers apocarpous.
Some have perfect flowers, but the Sagittaria we will see has unisexual
Flowers usually reduced and not showy.
1. Commelinaceae--Herbs, flowers primitive in subclass with showy perianth, fruit a capsule. Ex. Tradescantia with hairy filaments and bow-tie anthers.
2. Poaceae (Gramineae)--Herbs; culms (stems) round, with solid or hollow internodes, solid nodes; leaves two-ranked with open sheath, collar, and ligule. Flowers in spikelets, each with two glumes and one or more florets; each floret with lemma and palea; perianth represented by lodicules or absent. Awns may be present. Fruit a caryopsis (grain.) Very large family, including major grain crops--corn, wheat, rice, oats, millet, sorghum, rye, sugarcane, etc. Ex.: Avena (oat) and Bromus.
3. Cyperaceae--Herbs, culms usually angled, stems all solid; leaves usually 3-ranked with closed sheath. Flowers in spikelets NOT like Poaceae. Each flower subtended by 1 bract, perianth of bristles or absent. Fruit an achene. Ex.: Carex, with a sack-like perigynium around the gynoecium.
4. Juncaceae--Herbs, culms round, pithy, becoming hollow with age; leaves often reduced to just sheath. Flowers variously arranged, each subtended by bracts; perianth of 6 scaly parts. Fruit a capsule. Ex.: Juncus
Return to the Monocots I lab exercise
last modified April 12, 2004 by MDR