REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR BOTANY 301

If you can answer these questions, you should do well on the lecture exams and lab practicals. Remember, though, that exam questions are not limited to what is here. Be prepared to answer in complete sentences and to defend your answers if necessary.  Answers may be found in the course text, your lecture notes, and the laboratory pages

Choose a topic:

INTRO and DICOTS

Introduction, Classification and Nomenclature, Ferns and Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
Vegetative Morphology
Plant Collection
Reproductive Morphology
Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae
Caryophyllidae
Magnoliidae-Hamamelidae-Caryophyllidae Summary
Dilleniidae
Rosidae
Asteridae
Dicot Summary
MONOCOTS (next page)

Introduction, Classification and Nomenclature, Ferns and Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms

1.  What Division of plants does this course cover?

2.  What two Classes of plants does this course cover?

3.  List three differences between monocots and dicots. Tell which one has which features.

4.  Name three characters that flowering plants have that ferns and gymnosperms do not.

5.  The science of sorting organisms into groups is _____________. The practice of assigning names is called __________________. Coming up with a list of characters that define each group is called________________________.

6.  Label the parts of this scientific name:   Corydalis micrantha (Engelm) Gray

7.  Give the endings associated with Class:______________, Subclass: ________________, Order:__________________, and Family: ___________________.

8.  Define the word "rank."

9.  Define the word "taxon."

10.  Give three characters of a poorly-constructed taxonomic key couplet.

11.  Give three characters of a properly-constructed taxonomic key couplet.
 
 

Vegetative Morphology

1.  Identify the following root types. Monocots always have which kind (they may also have others)? Which kind is found only in dicots?

2. Label the following leaf margins, apices, and bases.

3. Dicots have ____________ venation and monocots typically have __________________.

4. Dicots have __________________ seed leaves and monocots typically have ____________.

5. What do you look for to tell if something has simple or compound leaves? Explain.

6. Where would you look for a stipule?

7. Draw examples of branches with the following leaf arrangements: alternate, opposite, whorled.

8. Label these leaves as to how they are compound.

9. Explain the difference between a tree and a shrub.

10. Explain the difference between an herb and an herbaceous perennial.

11.  Draw a twig and label:  terminal bud, lateral bud, bud scale scar, last year's growth, this year's growth, lenticel, leaf scar, vascular bundle scar, pith.

12.  Explain the difference between thorns, spines, and prickles.

13.  Describe three ways in which plants can climb and the structures that permit this.

Plant Collection

1. What should you do when collecting trees to make good specimens?

2. What should you do when collecting very tall herbs to make a good specimen?

3. Why is it important to record flower color in the field?

4. Name three TYPES or GROUPS of plants that are absolutely not allowed in your collection.

5. How much newspaper should enclose each plant specimen in your collection.

6. List what you will turn in with your first five plants.

7. List five things you could put in a habitat statement on a label.

8. List 3 things that will count against you in the "presentation" portion of your final plant collection.

9.  What should you do if you plan to collect outside of Texas?

10.  What is the most specimens you can have from any one family and still get full points?

Reproductive Morphology

1. Explain the difference between a carpel and a locule.

2. Explain the difference between a carpel and a pistil.

3. What things do you count in order to determine the number of carpels in a compound ovary?

4. For each of the following, tell whether the ovary is superior or inferior. Also indicate whether each is hypogynous, epigynous, or perigynous.

5. Draw an apocarpous gynoecium.

6. Draw a cross-section of a syncarpous gynoecium with 3 carpels, 3 locules, and axile placentation.

7. Draw a cross-section of a syncarpous gynoecium with 4 carpels, 1 locule, and parietal placentation.

8. Explain the difference between an achene and a caryopsis.

9. Explain the difference between an aggregate and a multiple fruit.

10. Describe the difference between a berry and a drupe.

11. Describe the difference between a pome and a drupe.

12. Fruits which split open at maturity are called________________. Fruits which do not split open are termed ________________.

13. Describe the difference between a legume, a loment, and a follicle.

14. What is the difference between a pedicel and a peduncle?

15. Explain the difference between a raceme and a spike.

16. Describe the structure of a catkin with regard to sex and completeness of the flowers.

17. A sessile flower is missing the _______________.

18. Explain the difference between a determinate and an indeterminate inflorescence.

19. Label the following inflorescence. What kind is it? (The answer is not "sunflower")

20.  Draw a scorpioid cyme, an umbel, and a panicle.  Indicate which are the oldes and which are the youngest flowers.

21. Write a floral formula for a flower which has 5 united sepals; a zygomorphic corolla of 5 petals-one large one, two small ones, and two that are united; 9 stamens united by their filaments and one free; and one superior carpel.

22. Write a flora formula for a flower which has a variable number of sepals, 8 petals united at the base, 8 stamens united by their anthers, and an inferior ovary of 4 united carpels.

23. Describe a flower which has the following formula.

24. Describe a flower which has the following formula.

Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae

1. What are 3 primitive characters present in the Liriodendron flower?

2. What are 3 primitive characters present in the Ranunculus flower?

3. Give 3 primitive vegetative features of Magnolia.

4.  Give two derived features found in flowers of the Papaveraceae.  What is one diagnostic vegetative feature?

5 Describe the differences in pollination strategy between Magnolia and Quercus. I.e., what pollinates each? Describe, for each, how the floral structure reflects this.

6. Describe three characters of the Ulmaceae which are different from those of the Juglandaceae--tell which has what and compare feature to feature (e.g., flower color to flower color, and that is NOT one of the answers.)

7. Describe three characters of the Ranunculaceae which are different from those of the Papaveraceae-tell which has what and compare feature to feature (e.g., flower color to flower color, and that is NOT one of the answers.)

8. How can you tell a twig of Juglans from one of Carya if you have no fruit or flowers? Tell which one has what.

9. How do flowers in the Ulmaceae differ from flowers of most of the rest of the plants in the Hamamelidae?

10. How does the Cannabaceae differ from most other families in the Hamamelidae? (Stinging hairs is not it.) Name the two genera in the family.

11. The fruit type in the Moraceae is _______________. In the Ulmaceae it can be _________ or _____________. In the Fagaceae it is_______________.

12. Identify the following structures AND tell which family each is from:

13.  In the Betulaceae, which sex(es) of flowers are in catkins?  What is the fruit type?

14.  Name three very primitive characters of the Winteraceae.

15.  Which family of the Magnoliidae stands as a possible link between monocots and dicots?

16. Which family is noted for having stamens in 4 whorls of 3?

Caryophyllidae

1. The structure below is from an Opuntia. It is a(n)_______________. The longer pointy things are ________________ and the small ones are ___________________.

2. The gynoecium of Opuntia is unusual. Describe its position relative to the perianth and to the stem.

3. This is the gynoecium of Arenaria. How many carpels? How many locules? Placentation type? What will the fruit type be?

4. Describe two diagnostic features of the Polygonaceae.

5. What is one way to tell the difference between the Chenopodiaceae and the Amaranthaceae--tell which has what.

6.  In flowers of the Nyctaginaceae, the ____________ is absent.  However, the __________ is very showy and the __________ beneath the flowers can look like a calyx.

7.  What fruit type is typical of the Portulacaceae?

8.  Describe the habit of xerophytic, sand-dwelling members of the Aizoaceae.

Magnoliidae-Hamamelidae-Caryophyllidae Summary

1. Write a dichotomous key to separate the following families: Magnoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Ranunculaceae, Moraceae, and Cannabaceae

2. Write a dichotomous key to separate the following families: Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Moraceae, Fagaceae, and Cactaceae.

3. Write a dichotomous key to separate the following families: Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fagaceae, Nymphaeaceae, and Urticaceae.

4. Write a dichotomous key to separate the following families. Polygonaceae, Ulmaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Papaveraceae, and Urticaceae.

Dilleniidae

1.  Which sex(es) of flowers in the Cucurbitaceae are showy? Why?

2.  Which sex(es) of flowers in the Cucurbitaceae have nectary disks? Why?

3.  Describe the unusual structure of stamens in members of the Malvaceae-You can use the one word, but be able to describe what that means.

4.  Where would you find an epicalyx?  What is it composed of?

5. Describe two ways in which the flowers in Salix catkins are different from those in catkins produced by most members of the Hamamelidae.

6. Describe the structure and dehiscence of a fruit of a member of the Brassicaceae.

7. Explain the difference between a silicle and a silique.

8.  Draw and label the typical androecium found in members of the Brassicaceae.

9.  Contrast the insect-catching methods displayed by the Sarraceniaceae and Droseraceae.

10.  Why do bog-dwelling plants often eat insects?

11. Contrast the pollination strategies of the Salicaceae and the Cucurbitaceae.

12. List three unusual features of flowers in the Passifloraceae. (Inflorescence type, symmetry, and showiness don't count.)

13. Describe the two kinds of flowers found in the Violaceae. Why would a plant produce each one?

14. You have one Vaccinium bush, with no others around for miles and miles, but you get fruit anyway. Give one explanation.

15.  Describe the unusual stamens in many members of the Ericaceae.  What two corolla shapes are typical of the family?

16. Describe the flower and give the family where the floral formula is

 

17. Describe the flower and give the family where the floral formula is

Rosidae
 

1.  What is the structure below? What family does it come from?

2.  Describe one diagnostic vegetative feature and one diagnostic floral feature found in the Crassulaceae.

3.  Succulent plants are found in both the Crassulaceae and the Cactaceae. How would you tell the families apart? Tell which has what.

4.  Succulent plants are found in both the Euphorbiaceae and the Cactaceae. How would you tell the families apart? Tell which has what.

5.  Members of the Rosaceae and Ranunculaceae may both be apocarpous.  How would you tell the two apart?  Tell which has what

6.  Members of the Rosaceae all tend to be alike in what features? What features are used to separate the subfamilies Tell which has what.

7.  Describe the fruiting structure of Rosa with regard to ovary position, number of carpels, fusion, and fruit type.

8.  Members of the Fabales share what feature? What feature(s) are used to separate the families? Tell which has what.

9.  Describe the difference between a silique and a legume.

10.  Legumes can be treated as three families, or three subfamilies of one family. Either way, there is a family called the Fabaceae. Explain how this is possible.

11. What feature of some members of the Fabales makes them useful as green manures or cover crops?

12.  You wanted the holly bushes in your landscape to have bright red berries, but about half the plants did not set fruit. Give one explanation.

13.  Describe or draw and thoroughly label the flowering structure in Euphorbia.

13.  How do flowers of non-Euphorbia type members of the Euphorbiaceae differ from Euhorbia-type flowers? (Structure, arrangement, etc.) How are they alike?

14.  Describe one diagnostic vegetative feature and one diagnostic floral feature found in the Vitaceae.

15.  Many members of the Rutaceae are aromatic. Describe the morphological features behind this fact.

16.  Describe the fruiting structure of Citrus.

17.  Describe the structure and dehiscence of the fruit of members of the Apiaceae. What is the term for this type of fruit?

18.  What feature makes the fruit  of members of the Apiaceae useful for spices?

19. What feature makes the leaves of members of the Apiaceae useful for herbs?

20.  Give two vegetative features common to members of the Apiaceae.

21.  Roots and leaves of wild members of the Apiaceae may be safely eaten-true or false?

22.  The first time you walk in poison ivy you get no rash.  The next time you touch it, you break out all over.  Explain how this is possible, i.e., what is the mechanism of rash production?

23. Describe two good vegetative characters that will let you identify a Cornus in the field.

24.  Construct a dichotomous key to the subfamilies of the Rosaceae.

25.  Construct a dichotomous key to separate the families of the Fabales.

Asteridae

1.  Describe three features common to most members of the Asteridae.

2.  Describe the structure and dehiscence of the fruit of members of the Lamiaceae. What is the term for this type of fruit?

3.  Describe three unusual features of flowers in Asclepias.

4.  Draw and label a pollinia pair from Asclepias.

5.  Name two ways in which flowers of the Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae are similar. Describe one way in which they are different.

6.  Describe one way to tell the Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae apart.

7.  What is one feature that the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae share?  How can you tell them apart?

8.  Describe or draw and label the gynoecium of a mint flower.

9.  Describe one way by which you can tell the Lamiaceae and Scrophulariaceae apart.

10. Describe or draw and label the androecium of a mint-family flower with four stamens.

11. Name two ways in which the Rubiaceae and Caprifoliaceae are similar. Describe one way in which they are different.

12. Label the parts of the flower below. What family is it from?

13.  Explain how a member of the Plantaginaceae might be mistaken for a monocot.

14.  True or false: tubers and fruits of wild members of the Solanaceae may be safely eaten. Explain.

16. Describe one feature of the gynoecium of the Polemoniaceae that is not common to other members of the Asteridae.

17. Name two families which have many woody members in the tropics, but which are mostly herbs in the temperate zone.

18. Label the parts of the flower below. What family is it from?

19. Give the three head types found in the Asteraceae and tell which flower types are found in each.

20. The Asteraceae is a large and diverse family, so much so that it is divided up into subunits called__________________.

21. Explain the difference between phyllaries and chaff.

22. What function does a pappus serve? How is it useful to botanists?

23. Contrast the pollination strategies of the Salicaceae and Asteraceae.

24.  For each of the following families, list one genus other than the type genus:  Campanulaceae, Rubiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Convolvulaceae

Dicot summary

1.  Which subclass of dicots has the most families?

2.  Which family of dicots has the most species?

3.  Give the "old" names for Brassicaceae, Fabaceae (broad sense), Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Why do these families have new, "-aceae" names?

4.  Write a properly-constructed dichotomous key to separate the following families: Polemoniaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Ericaceae, Ulmaceae

5.  Write a properly-constructed dichotomous key to separate the following families: Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Cactaceae, Papaveraceae

6.  Write a properly-constructed dichotomous key to separate the following families: Caprifoliaceae, Rosaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Magnoliaceae

7.  Write a properly-constructed dichotomous key to separate the following families: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apiaceae, Juglandaceae

8.  You find a herbaceous plant with palmately lobed leaves, sheathing leaf bases, and apocarpous flowers.  What family?

9.  You find a tree with simple evergreen leaves, showy flowers, cone-like fruits.  What family?

10.  You find viny plant with alternate leaves, poricidally-dehiscent anthers, and black berries.  Family?

11.  You find a plant with opposite leaves, bicarpellate ovary, four stamens, and a bilabiate corolla.  Name three families it might be in.  What would you look at to determine to what family it belongs?

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Last updated by M. Reed  9-22-2003