Glossary
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Saccate
Swollen or sac-shaped; see the second glume of Sacciolepis.

Scabrous
Rough to the touch; caused by short, stiff, angled hairs on the surface.

Scarious
Thin, dry, and membranous; not green (e.g., the margins of a Poa lemma).

Schlerenchyma
A cell and tissue type in which the cells have both a primary cell wall and a secondary cell wall.

Scutellum
Haustorial tissue of the embryo located between the endosperm and the plummule-radicle axis of the embryo.

Second glume
The uppermost of the two glumes; an odd-veined, empty bract of the spikelet.

Secondary
Not primary, subordinate; the branches that arise from the primary branches.

Series
Number or group of similar objects arranged in a row.

Serrate
Saw-toothed with the teeth angled toward the apex, sharp teeth.

Sessile
Without a pedicel or stalk.

Setaceous
Slender and bristle-like.

Setae
A rigid bristle; sharp pointed bristle.

Sheath
The lower part of a leaf that encloses the culm; typically open or split and overlapping at the margins.

Short cell
Located in the epidermis of grasses, occurring in pairs of cork cells and silica cells.

Silica cell
One of two types of short cells in the epidermis of grasses, silica cells have deposits of silica in them.

Sinuate
Having a wavy margin.

Solitary
Single; one.

Spathe
A modified leaf sheath that subtends and often encloses some of the inflorescence.

Spatheate
Having a spathe.

Species
The basic unit of classification.

Spherical
Shaped like a globe or a ball.

Spicate
Spike-like; resembling a spike inflorescence but having both sessile and pedicellate spikelets or flowers.

Spicate raceme
Having both sessile and pedicellate spikelets on a rachis.

Spike
An unbranched inflorescence in which the spikelets are sessile on the rachis (main axis).

Spikelet
The basic unit of a grass inflorescence that typically consists of 2 glumes (except in some species where 1 or both glumes are lacking), 1 or more florets, and a rachilla.

Spines
A sharp pointed, stiff body arising from the epidermis; in grasses these are usually flattened and modified inflorescence branches.

Spiral
An arrangement of objects along the outline of a coiled spring.

Spreading
Branches that are widely ascending to divergent from the main axis.

Squarrose
Spreading rigidly at right angle; usually the shape of bracts.

Stamen
The male organ of a flower, consisting of the pollen bearing anther on a slender filament. The collective term for stamen is androecium.

Staminate
Containing stamen but not the pistil.

Sterile
Without pistils. A sterile floret may be staminate or neuter. Not capable of producing a seed.

Stigma
The part of the ovary or style that receives the pollen for fertilization.

Stipe
A small stalk to a fascicle of spikelets; see the stalk of Pennisetum.

Stolon
A horizontal, above-ground stem with modified leaves, nodes, internodes, and axillary buds.

Stoloniferous
Bearing horizontal above ground stems that root at the nodes.

Striate
Marked with longitudinal grooves or lines; appearing striped.

Sub
A prefix used to denote a lesser degree, an inferior rank, or a lower position.

Subequal
Nearly equal in length.

Subtend
To be below and close to; refers to position.

Subterranean
Below ground or below the soil.

Subulate
Awl-shaped.

Succulent
Fleshy, soft or juicy.

Systematics
The broad field concerned with the study of the diversity of plants and their identification, naming, classification, and evolution.