Bibiography:  Reference Listing
for the Urticaceae

Bassett, I.J., C.W. Crompton, and D.W. Woodland. 1974. The family Urticaceae in Canada Canad. J. Bot. 52:503-516.

Boufford, D.E. 1997b. Urticaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds, Fl. North Amer. 3:400-413 Oxford Univ. Press, New York and Oxford.

Fernald, M.L. 1936. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University--No. CXIII. II. Pilea in eastern North America Rhodora 38:169-170.

Friis, I. 1993. Urticaceae. In: K. Kubitzki, J.C. Rohwer, and V. Bittrich, eds The families and genera of vascular plants, Vol. II Pp. 612-630, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Miller, N. G. 1971a. The genera of the Urticaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 52:40-68.

Townsend, C. C. 1968. Parietaria officinalis and P. judaica. Watsonia 6:365-370.

Woodland, D. W. 1982. Biosystematics of the perennial North American species of Urtica II. Taxonomy. Systematic Botany 7:282-290.

Woodland, D. W., I. J. Bassett, and C. W. Crampton. 1976. The annual species of stinging nettle (Hesperocnide and Urtica) in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:374-383.