PLANTS AND PEOPLE
More info: 'A
Feast' from the Missouri Botanical Garden
indehiscent) with a leathery rind [exocarp
mesocarp] with embedded oil cavities and locules filled with 'juice
sacs' [unicellular 'hairs' derived from the endocarp - each internal
a carpellary unit. Fruit type common to the RUTACEAE
and uniform in the genus Citrus.
a. The genus is native to Asia and the South Pacific
domesticates transported early to Europe, later - by spanish - to the
World (Florida 1565 - important by 1820).
b. Oranges (Citrus
perennial fruit tree crop in the U.S. and 'most grown' Citrus crop of
the world. Normal
type 'Valencia' - most important type grown in Florida and Texas -
[mutant with non-functional, small ovary on top of the functional ovary
forms the 'navel' - is sterile [seedless].
c. Coloration induced by cool weather - chlorophyll degrades and other pigments
become evident - does not occur in the
topics - thus, treat
with ETHYLENE -
HORMONE TO STIMULATE FRUIT MATURATION - or actually dye
d. Citrus aurantiifolia - 'lime' -
scurvy - now known caused by lack of vitamin C - British (source of
English name = Iran) only knew that
of lime juice prevented the disease - 'limeys' - vitamin C content of
2. PEPO: a berry from an epigynous species,
the outer rind a combination of pericarp and perianth tissue - usually
leathery or hard - often with just 1 locule (pumpkin) and three
e. Grape fruit
- C. x paradisi -
evidently a hybrid between two Citrus
species [pomelo (Citrus maxima) with the sweet orange
that occurred in
the New World (probably Barbados) -
thus, a case of historic New World origin of a fully domesticated
lineage from a genus
is of Old World origin.
- Pumpkins and squashs: american trilogy - winter vs. summer - immature
- Mexico (ornamental, acorn,
etc) - C.
b. watermelon - Citrullus
lanatus - !kung - africa origins (seedless)
C. moschata -most ancient - both
South Ameica - butternut
C. maxima - largest 'big max pumpkin'
- over 1,000 lbs from 1 gynoecium - largest
- SA only
C. mixta (C. argyrosperma)and
ficifolia - cushaw, uplands
- melo - cantolope, sativus - cucumbers
3. BERRY - SOLANACEAE
- NIGHTSHADE FAMILY - EUROPE - ALKALOIDS - ATROPA
[DEADLY NIGHTSHADE], MANDRAKE
- discovery of New World:
- gourds - similar to Gossypium - very old in Old and
e. Chayote - Sechium edule
- vascular strands
ANNUUM] - native to New World -
domesticated in Mexico - paprika - taken up by Old World people -sweet
types evidently derived recently from original, pungent varieties.
lycopersicum - domesticated in the
World - initially thought to be poisonous - 1820 COLONEL ROBERT
- EAT TOMATOS 'LYCOPERSICON = JUICY [esculent] WOLF PEACH - again -
took up the plant in a big way. With regard to the name; it was first
Linnaeus as Solanum
lycopersicum, but later given its own genus by Miller, who
called it Lycopersicon esculentum.
suggest that the tomato and its
relatives are most
closely related to potatoes — thus they are now known as Solanum lycopersicum. You
text carries the old species name 'esculentum'
tomato to the Genus Solanum,
this is apparently in conflict with the rules of nomenclature.
Old World domesticate of the family - EGGPLANT [VS. SOLANUM
TUBEROSUM] [SOLANUM MELONGENA] - big genus -
China - original cultivars had an egg-like fruit (small, ovate, white)
- Fig - Ficus
- 800 species - large genus of the tropics, many huge trees, dominants
the tropical lowlands with great ecological importance - also many
ornamental figs - Ficus carica - multiple fruit,
unisexual flowers, fleshy
receptacle (see Dorstenia intermediate) - SYNCONIUM
- pollinated by tiny wasps that
from synconium to synconium laying their eggs in ovarys of pistillate
SMYRNA figs have no staminate flowers in inflorescence. Thus,
figs or cultivated 'pollen donor' figs (CAPRIFIG) must be
This relationship was not understood with figs were first transported
the New World.
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10 Feb 2011