Medical Significance

Morphine, as it was stated earlier, is a potent narcotic analgesic. It's primary clinical use is in the management of moderately severe and severe pain. After heroin, morphine has the greatest dependence liability of the narcotic analgesics in common use(FDA-morphine report). It is administered by several routes (injected, smoked, swallowed, sniffed) but when injected it can produce immense euphoria and a general state of well-being and relaxation. Here are some medical applications for morphine :

Morphine is legally available only in the form of its water soluble salts. These are morphine sulfate and hydrochloride. Morphine is rapidly destroyed as it passes through the liver immediately after absorption. The typical dose range is from 5 to 20 mg every four hours, depending on the severity of the pain (FDA- drug dosage book). The oral dosage range is between 8 and 20 mg; but with oral administration morphine has less analgesic potency (FDA- drug dosage book). Morphine has direct affects on the Respiratory, CNS, and Gastrointestinal areas of the body.

Respiratory System - slightly reduces the respiratory rate, includes pulse rate Gastrointestinal - causes nausea and vomiting; constipation; loss of appetite; decreased gastric mobility (FDA - specific causes book) CNS - suppression the sensation of and emotional response to pain; euphoria; drowsiness.

Morphine acts as a narcotic + opioid analgesic. This means that it affects the bowel and the central nervous system. It is an Opiate, so it is found in the opium poppy plant. It is isolated from crude opium, which is a resinous prep of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It's Trade Names are :

Morphine is infrequently encountered in the North American street drug culture. Street Names include:

Because of its availability in hospitals, there have been several documented cases of morphine dependence among health professionals.

Active Compounds in Morphine

Morphine is a type of drug that is made up of many different components. Chemically, Morphine consists of :

    1. Morphinan - 3,6 - diol
    2. 7,8 - didehydro - 4,5 - 17 - methyl (5alpha, 6 alpha)
    3. Sulfate (2:1) (salt), pentahydrate

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