What to know for the first Lab Practical
"What do we need to know for the practical?" To avoid confusion,
use the below to guide your studying.
You should be able to:
-- Identify different vegetative parts of a plant and tell their
functions--roots, stems, leaves, shoots, etc., and their modifications
(tuber, corm, rhizome, etc.)
-- List or identify vegetative and reproductive features which
distinguish monocots from dicots
-- Identify different reproductive parts of a plant and tell their
functions. Know the terms that go with them (carpel, locule,
-- Interpret a given flower or fruit with regard to ovary
position, number of carpels, placentation type, symmetry, pollination
-- Identify the different fruit types presented in lab. Know the
characteristics of each fruit type so that you can assign a fruit type
to any given fruit sample. (e.g., if it's fleshy and indehiscent
and has one seed surrounded by a stony inner layer, it must be a drupe.)
-- Recognize material belonging to the eight major families from the
Major Families lab and know the special floral or vegetative features
of each one.
--Assign a sample to the correct subfamily of the Rosaceae based on
floral structure or fruit type
-- Determine which head type is represented by a given sample of
Asteraceae and identify the parts of the head
-- Assign Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae herb and spice
samples to the appropriate family or list examples by common name if
given the family.
-- Identify the plants we studied which are toxic or edible only when
-- Identify the various crops presented in lab, giving their common
name, family, genus, and specific epithet, their monocot/dicot
placement, part used, and area of origin.
The best way to do this is to make flash cards with
the image of the plant on one side and the information on the
other. Group by family and study. Group by plant part and
study. Group by area of origin and study. Connections will
become clear. E.g. Which crops are in the same genus?
The same species? Which crops have multiple edible or useful
parts? It can help to learn which ones are monocots or
gymnosperms and assume that everything else is a dicot. Learn
which plants are New World in Origin and assume that everything else is
from the Old World.
1. If you only saw the plant as a can or box or other packaged
product and not the whole structure, you need to know the common name
only: examples: Acerola, Ackee, Calaloo, Galangal, Hibiscus, Longan,
Picaya (palm inflorescence), Rambutan, Toddy Palm
2. For these less common plants, you need only know common name,
family, structure/fruit type and origin, not genus and specific
epithet: Brazil Nut, European Chestnut, Gobo Root,
Goji Berry, Guava, Kang-kung/Water Spinach, Long Squash, Lotus "Root",
Macadamia Nut, Malanga, Pitaya/Dragonfruit, Water Chestnut
You will not need to:
--know anything that was on a handout but which we were unable to find
--distinguish the different types of apples, pears, hot peppers,
tomatoes, potatoes, or lettuce.
The practical will be arranged as twenty stations, each with one to
three questions, for a total of 50 questions. There will be a
bonus station worth 3 points. You will have a timed 1.5 minutes
per station, with 5 minutes at the end to go back and look at any
station you need to, so long as there is only one person at any given
station. Questions will be short answer, not multiple
choice. There will not be a word bank. With regard to
spelling, your answer has to start with the right letter and have most
of the right letters in the right order and sound correct if we say it
out loud. Family names should end appropriately. Each
section will have a different practical.